High Uric Acid Edit
- Gout, a form of arthritis
- Spasticity, involuntary movement and cognitive retardation
- Although uric acid can act as an antioxidant, excess serum accumulation is implicated in cardiovascular disease
Low Uric Acid Edit
Lower serum values of uric acid have been associated with Multiple Sclerosis . Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been found to have serum levels ~194µmol/L, with patients in relapse averaging ~160µmol/L and patients in remission averaging ~230µmol/L. Serum uric acid in healthy controls was ~290µmol/L.  (1mg/dL=59.48 µmol/L)
A 1998 study completed a statistical analysis of 20 million patient records, comparing serum uric acid values in patients with gout and patients with multiple sclerosis. Almost no overlap between the groups was found .
Uric acid has been successfully used in the treatment and prevention of the animal (murine) model of MS. A 2006 study found that elevation of serum uric acid values in multiple sclerosis patients, by oral supplementation with inosine, resulted in lower relapse rates, and no adverse effects. 
- Oxidative Stress
- Like other strong reducing substances such as ascorbate, uric acid can also act as a prooxidant, particularly at elevated levels.
- Purines are found in high amounts in animal food products, especially internal organs.
- sweetbreads, anchovies, sardines, liver, beef kidneys, brains, meat extracts (e.g Oxo, Bovril), herring, mackerel, scallops, game meats, and gravy.
- A moderate amount of purine is also contained in beef, pork, poultry, fish and seafood, asparagus, cauliflower, spinach, mushrooms, green peas, lentils, dried peas, beans, oatmeal, wheat bran and wheat germ.
- Moderate intake of purine-containing food is not associated with an increased risk of gout.
- Serum uric acid can be elevated due to high fructose intake, reduced excretion by the kidneys, and or high intake of dietary purine.
- Fructose can be found in processed foods and soda beverages - in some countries, in the form of high fructose corn syrup.