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Urology is the field of medicine that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. In men, the urinary system overlaps with the reproductive system, and in women the urinary tract opens into the vulva. In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive tracts are close together, and disorders of one often affect the other. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis).

The discipline combines management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) problems such as urinary infections, and surgical problems such as the correction of congenital abnormalities and the surgical management of cancers. Such abnormalities within the genital region are called genitourinary disorders.

Urologists are also involved in the assessment and treatment of incontinence. Urodynamics is the study of the pressure within the urinary system and urologists often use diagnostic techniques such as flow cystometry or ambulatory urodynamic profiles to determine the best method of treatment for the patient. This could include medical prescription (e.g. oxybutynin or multiple alpha-blockers) or surgical intervention (e.g. urethral suspension/slings).

Other subfields of urology include urologic oncology, stone disease, voiding dysfunction, pediatric urology, sexual dysfunction and male infertility.

Urology is closely related to the medical fields of nephrology, andrology, gynaecology, proctology and oncology.

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